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 Florence Nightingale.....

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تاريخ التسجيل : 02/04/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: Florence Nightingale.....   الأربعاء 09 أبريل 2008, 11:31

Florence Nightingale was a legend in her lifetime but the Crimean War years
which made her famous were just two out of a life of ninety years.



Early Years
Florence Nightingale was born in
Italy on 12 May 1820 and was named Florence after the city where she was born.
Her parents, William Edward and Frances Nightingale were a wealthy couple, who
had toured Europe for two years on their honeymoon. During their travels their
first daughter, Parthenope, was born in Naples (Parthenope being the Greek name
for the ancient city), followed one year later by Florence. On returning to
England the Nightingales divided their time between two homes. In the summer
months they lived at Lea Hurst in Derbyshire, moving to Embley in Hampshire for
the winter. Lea Hurst is now a retirement home and Embley is now a school.



Call From God


Florence and
Parthenope were taught at home by their Cambridge University educated father.
Florence was an academic child, while her sister excelled at painting and
needlework. Florence grew up to be a lively and attractive young woman, admired
in the family's social circle and she was expected to make a good marriage, but
Florence had other concerns. In 1837, whilst in the gardens at Embley, Florence
had what she described as her 'calling'. Florence heard the voice of God calling
her to do his work, but at this time she had no idea what that work would be



The years of struggle and the visit to Kaiserswerth


Florence developed an interest in the social
questions of the day, made visits to the homes of the sick in the local villages
and began to investigate hospitals and nursing. Her parents refused to allow her
to become a nurse as in the mid-nineteenth century it was not considered a
suitable profession for a well educated woman. While the family conflicts over
Florence's future remained unresolved it was decided that Florence would tour
Europe with some family friends, Charles and Selina Bracebridge. The three
travelled to Italy, Egypt and Greece, returning in July 1850 through Germany
where they visited Pastor Theodor Fliedner's hospital and school for deaconesses
at Kaiserswerth, near Dusseldorf. The following year Florence Nightingale
returned to Kaiserswerth and undertook three months nursing training, which
enabled her to take a vacancy as Superintendent of the Establishment for
Gentlewomen during illness at No. 1 Harley Street, London in 1853.


The Crimean War


In March
1854 Britain, France and Turkey declared war on Russia. The allies defeated the
Russians at the battle of the Alma in September but reports in The Times
criticised the British medical facilities for the wounded. In response, Sidney
Herbert, the Minister at War, who knew Florence Nightingale socially and through
her work at Harley Street, appointed her to oversee the introduction of female
nurses into the military hospitals in Turkey. On 4 November 1854, Florence
Nightingale arrived at the Barrack Hospital in Scutari, a suburb on the Asian
side of Constantinople, with the party of 38 nurses. Initially the doctors did
not want the nurses there and did not ask for their help, but within ten days
fresh casualties arrived from the battle of Inkermann and the nurses were fully
stretched


For her contribution to Army statistics and comparative
hospital statistics in 1860 Florence Nightingale became the first woman to be
elected a fellow of the Statistical Society. In 1865 she settled at 10 South
Street, Mayfair, in the West End of London and apart from occasional visits to
Embley, Lea Hurst and to her sister at Claydon House she lived there until her
death.


Nightingale Training School for Nurses



Florence Nightingale's greatest achievement was to raise nursing
to the level of a respectable profession for women. In 1860, with the public
subscriptions of the Nightingale Fund, she established the Nightingale Training
School for nurses at St Thomas' Hospital. Mrs Sarah Wardroper, Matron at St
Thomas', became the head of the new school. The probationer nurses received a
year's training which included some lectures but was mainly practical ward work
under the supervision of the ward sister. "Miss Nightingale", as she was always
called by the nurses, scrutinised the probationers' ward diaries and reports.


From 1872 Florence Nightingale devoted closer attention to the
organisation of the School and almost annually for the next thirty years she
wrote an open letter to the nurses and probationers giving advice and
encouragement. On completion of training Florence Nightingale gave the nurses
books and invited them to tea. Once trained the nurses were sent to staff
hospitals in Britain and abroad and to established nursing training schools on
the Nightingale model. In 1860 her best known work, Notes on Nursing, was
published. It laid down the principles of nursing: careful observation and
sensitivity to the patient's needs. Notes on Nursing has been translated
into eleven foreign languages and is still in print today.


Public Health


Florence
Nightingale's writings on hospital planning and organisation had a profound
effect in England and across the world. Miss Nightingale was the principal
advocate of the 'pavilion' plan for hospitals in Britain.


Like her
friend, the public health reformer Edwin Chadwick, Florence Nightingale believed
that infection arose spontaneously in dirty and poorly ventilated places. This
mistaken belief nevertheless led to improvements in hygiene and healthier living
and working environments. Florence Nightingale also advised and supported
William Rathbone in the development of district nursing in Liverpool and many
Nightingale trained nurses became pioneers in this field



Old Age



Although
Florence Nightingale was bedridden for many years, she campaigned tirelessly to
improve health standards, publishing 200 books, reports and pamphlets. In
recognition of her hard work Queen Victoria awarded Miss Nightingale the Royal
Red Cross in 1883. In her old age she received many honours, including the Order
of Merit (1907), becoming the first woman to receive it. Florence Nightingale
died at home at the age of 90 on 13 August 1910 and, according to her wishes,
she was buried at St Margaret's, East Wellow, near her parent's home, Embley
Park in Hampshire. Florence Nightingale's farsighted reforms have influenced the
nature of modern health care and her writings continue to be a resource for
nurses, health managers and planners


_________________




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Florence Nightingale.....
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